#32 How to create a low-fidelity prototype in Google Sheets

Google Sheets is a spreadsheet, just like Microsoft Excel.

Most people associate it with calculating numbers. But Google Sheets is actually great for organizing your ideas, making lists, even creating a low-fidelity prototype.

When I come up with an idea for a product or a design concept, I want to capture that initial vision in my head by writing it down in text, or visualizing it in sketches.

Once my vision is written down as a statement, a sketch, or a description of some sort, I need to further break it down into a set of high-level features in order to turn that vision into an actionable product requirement or a design brief to formulate a project.

An image of Macbook showing Google Sheets open, with an overlaid formula “=SUM(A1:A10)”.
Google Sheets is primarily used for calculating numbers

I found that this whole initial process, from a vision to a high-level feature set, then to a low-fidelity prototype can be done fairly efficiently in Google Sheets.

In this article, I’d like to share this process in Google Sheets with you, taking a portfolio website as an example.


1. Vision and user story

  • First I write down my vision in Google Sheets document. Since I’m taking a portfolio website as an example, I start describing what kind of portfolio site that I want to create.
  • Because my portfolio website’s users are recruiters and hiring managers, it’s a good idea to put myself in their shoes, and write down a user story from their perspective.
A screenshot of Google Sheets with a vision and a user story typed in.
Vision and user story

2. Vision to feature set

  • As soon as I write down my vision and a user story from a user’s perspective, I start generating a feature set — all the things that I need to have in my portfolio website. A spreadsheet structure makes it super-easy to create and edit such a list.
  • Once I write down all the features/content that I can think of, I prioritize those in an order.
A screenshot of Google Sheets with a vision, a user story, and feature set typed in.
Feature set

3. Feature set to pages

  • As soon as I have a list of features and content, I start thinking how these should be distributed across multiple pages of my portfolio website.
  • I create a new column called Pages, and assign an appropriate page for each feature and content that I listed.
A screenshot of Google Sheets showing pages column is added which shows corresponding page for each feature set item.
Corresponding pages for each feature set

4. Pages to main menu

  • These pages become main menu items.
  • I create another column called Main menu, and put pages in an order that I want to have in the main menu of my site.
A screenshot of Google Sheets showing main menu column is added which shows main menu items.
Main menu

At this point I have an overall information architecture of my portfolio website, in forms of a main menu, and a list of features and content with assigned pages for each.

A screenshot of Google Sheets showing main menu and feature set for each page, color-coded.
Information architecture shown with color-coded main menu item and its corresponding feature and content

5. Creating each page

  • Now it’s time to create each page of my site using a tab feature. Tabs are perfect for creating separate pages of my prototype still within the same Google Sheets document.
  • I copy and paste corresponding elements for each page from feature/content list, which I already created and organized in the first tab of Google Sheets document. Below screenshots shows a sequence of creating new pages in new tabs.
A screenshot showing a home page being added as a new tab.
Create Home page in a new tab, then paste corresponding elements from feature/content list
A screenshot showing about me page being added as a new tab.
Create About me page in a new tab, then paste corresponding elements from feature/content list
A screenshot showing projects page being added as a new tab.
Create Projects page in a new tab, then paste corresponding elements from feature/content list
A screenshot showing a project detail page being added as a new tab.
Create Project detail page in a new tab, then paste corresponding elements from feature/content list

6. Linking pages

  • Once all the pages are created as separate tabs within the Google Sheets document, I copy and paste the main menu to the home page.
  • I insert a link to each main menu item by grabbing a URL of each page, which is a different tab in the same document.
  • I copy and paste the main menu with all the inserted links to other pages.
  • I add a highlight to a corresponding main menu item in each page to represent the selected status.
A screenshot showing a popup for “insert link” on one of main menu items.
Inserting links to each main menu item

Now I have a clickable low-fidelity prototype so that I can test and evaluate the overall structure of my portfolio website, before moving forward with creating a high-fidelity design or building the actual portfolio site on a website-building platform such as WordPress.

A diagram showing an overall structure of a portfolio site low-fidelity prototype with pages, main menu, and tabs.
Overall structure of a portfolio site low-fidelity prototype created in Google Sheets

The beauty of this prototype is that it’s fast, and I can stay razor-focused on my very vision without being distracted by all the visual treatments.

Before jumping into UX design/prototyping tools or a site-building platform to start building a website, it’s probably a better idea to focus on my vision and high-level idea first to see if it makes sense overall.

Because, as soon as I start diving deep into a UX design tool, my attention could easily be taken away by all the user interface details that I can play around with, such as colors, sizes, typography, white spaces, iconography, images, videos and so on.


The fact that it’s a spreadsheet meant for numbers somehow seems to offload my desire and obligation to make it look good as I would when using any design/prototyping tools. It’s an interesting psychological effect.

This approach works great even for non-designers too, such as product managers, product owners, business owners, entrepreneurs, and engineers.

Because Google Sheets is a simple spreadsheet, most people know how to use it. And it’s free.

Google Sheets allows anyone to freely mock up their ideas into a simple low-fidelity prototype without visual distractions and having to worry about learning how to use fancier UX prototyping tools. I found it quite useful.


This article was also published on Medium in UX Collective.

Check out YouTube version too!

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